Neurokinin 1 receptor mediates membrane blebbing and sheer stress-induced microparticle formation in HEK293 cells

PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e45322. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045322. Epub 2012 Sep 14.

Abstract

Cell-derived microparticles participate in intercellular communication similar to the classical messenger systems of small and macro-molecules that bind to specialized membrane receptors. Microparticles have been implicated in the regulation of a variety of complex physiopathologic processes, such as thrombosis, the control of innate and adaptive immunity, and cancer. The neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) is a Gq-coupled receptor present on the membrane of a variety of tissues, including neurons in the central and peripheral nervous system, immune cells, endocrine and exocrine glands, and smooth muscle. The endogenous agonist of NK1R is the undecapeptide substance P (SP). We have previously described intracellular signaling mechanisms that regulate NK1R-mediated rapid cell shape changes in HEK293 cells and U373MG cells. In the present study, we show that the activation of NK1R in HEK293 cells, but not in U373MG cells, leads to formation of sheer-stress induced microparticles that stain positive with the membrane-selective fluorescent dye FM 2-10. SP-induced microparticle formation is independent of elevated intracellular calcium concentrations and activation of NK1R present on HEK293-derived microparticles triggers detectable calcium increase in SP-induced microparticles. The ROCK inhibitor Y27632 and the dynamin inhibitor dynasore inhibited membrane blebbing and microparticle formation in HEK293 cells, strongly suggesting that microparticle formation in this cell type is dependent on membrane blebbing.

MeSH terms

  • Calcium / metabolism
  • Cell Line
  • Cell Membrane / drug effects
  • Cell Membrane / metabolism*
  • Cell Membrane / pathology*
  • Cell-Derived Microparticles / drug effects
  • Cell-Derived Microparticles / metabolism*
  • Cytosol / metabolism
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Dynamins / metabolism
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum / metabolism
  • HEK293 Cells
  • Humans
  • Neurotransmitter Agents / pharmacology
  • Receptors, Neurokinin-1 / metabolism*
  • Substance P / pharmacology
  • Time Factors
  • rho-Associated Kinases / metabolism

Substances

  • Neurotransmitter Agents
  • Receptors, Neurokinin-1
  • Substance P
  • rho-Associated Kinases
  • Dynamins
  • Calcium