Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain a leading cause of death worldwide. In the past years new biomarkers have drawn the clinician's attention for their use in primary prevention and in the identification of individuals at cardiovascular risk. Biomarkers also provide information on the progression and possible recurrence of cardiovascular events, and include inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and interleukin-18), endothelial dysfunction markers (intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1), neurohormonal markers (brain natriuretic peptide and copeptine), ischemia biomarkers (apolipoprotein J) and necrosis markers (troponins). Although biomarkers provide utility for predicting cardiovascular risk, the identification and characterization of new biomarkers to achieve increasing diagnosis and prognostic efficiency in CVD prevention is of high clinical interest. In this review we will discuss on recently discovered biomarkers and their clinical applications.
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