In response to water spray, subirrigation, wind, touch, wounding, or darkness, Arabidopsis regulates the expression of at least four touch-induced (TCH) genes. Ten to thirty minutes after stimulation, mRNA levels increase up to 100-fold. Arabidopsis plants stimulated by touch develop shorter petioles and bolts. This developmental response is known as thigmomorphogenesis. TCH 1 cDNA encodes the putative Arabidopsis calmodulin differing in one amino acid from wheat calmodulin. Sequenced regions of TCH 2 and TCH 3 contain 44% and 70% amino acid identities to calmodulin, respectively. The regulation of this calmodulin-related gene family in Arabidopsis suggests that calcium ions and calmodulin are involved in transduction of signals from the environment, enabling plants to sense and respond to environmental changes.