The introgression of RNAi silencing of γ-gliadins into commercial lines of bread wheat changes the mixing and technological properties of the dough

PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e45937. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045937. Epub 2012 Sep 24.


In the present work the effects on dough quality by the down-regulation of γ-gliadins in different genetic backgrounds of bread wheat were investigated. RNAi-mediated silencing of γ-gliadins was introgressed by conventional crossing into three commercial bread wheat lines (namely 'Gazul', 'Podenco' and 'Arpain'), and along with the transgenic line A1152 (cv. Bobwhite) compared with their respective wild types. The protein fractions were quantified by RP-HPLC, whereas the technological and mixing properties were assessed by SDSS test and by the Mixograph instrument. Principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out for both the wild types and the transgenic lines, showing differences in the factors affecting the technological and mixing properties of the dough as a consequence of the reduction of the γ-gliadins. In transgenic lines, the α- and ω-gliadins, and total gliadins negatively affected the dough strength and tolerance to over-mixing, whereas the L/H ratio showed the opposite effect, positively influencing the dough quality. The increase of the SDSS volume in the transgenic lines of 'Gazul', 'Podenco' and 'Arpain' indicates increased gluten strength and quality respect to the wild types. SDSS volume was found to be positively influenced by the amount of glutenins, which were also increased in the transgenic lines. In addition, a positive effect was observed in the MT, PR1 and RBD in some of the transgenic lines of 'Podenco' and 'Arpain'. In conclusion, the down-regulation of γ-gliadins resulted in stronger doughs and a better tolerance to over-mixing in some transgenic lines. Although the reduction of γ-gliadins seems not to have a direct effect on the mixing and bread-making properties, the compensatory effect on the synthesis of the other prolamins may result in stronger doughs with improved over-mixing resistance.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Bread / analysis*
  • Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  • Flour / analysis*
  • Food Industry / methods
  • Gliadin / genetics*
  • Plants, Genetically Modified / genetics
  • RNA Interference*
  • Triticum / genetics*


  • Gliadin

Grant support

This work was supported by the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (AGL2010-19643-C02-02 and TRA2009_0047), the European Regional Development Fund (FEDER) and Junta de Andalucía (Project P09-AGR-4783). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.