Comparison of the effects of a new 32-gauge × 4-mm pen needle and a 32-gauge × 6-mm pen needle on glycemic control, safety, and patient ratings in Japanese adults with diabetes

Diabetes Technol Ther. 2012 Dec;14(12):1084-90. doi: 10.1089/dia.2012.0170. Epub 2012 Oct 3.


Background: This study was designed to evaluate two pen needles (PNs) with the same diameter but different lengths (4 mm and 6 mm) and different needle tip shapes (straight and tapered) to compare their effects on glycemic control, perceived pain, safety, patients' ease of use and preferences, and visual impression.

Subjects and methods: In this prospective, open-label, controlled crossover study, 41 insulin-treated patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes were randomized into either Group 1 (the 32-gauge × 4-mm PN was used during Study Period 1, then the 32-gauge × 6-mm PN was used during Study Period 2) or Group 2 (the order for using the PNs was reversed).

Results: The 32-gauge × 4-mm PN provided an equivalent glycemic control in diabetes patients as the 32-gauge × 6-mm PN, with an equivalent occurrence rate of adverse events. The 32-gauge × 4-mm PN was perceived as significantly less painful and rated as significantly more favorable than the 32-gauge × 6-mm PN according to the survey results on patients' ease of use and preferences and on their visual impressions.

Conclusions: The 32-gauge × 4-mm PN was not only as safe and efficacious as the 32-gauge × 6-mm PN, but also was perceived as less painful, easier to use, and more favorable to Japanese adult patients with diabetes.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Asian Continental Ancestry Group*
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism*
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / epidemiology
  • Equipment Design
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Injections, Intradermal
  • Insulin / administration & dosage*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Needles*
  • Pain Measurement
  • Patient Satisfaction
  • Prospective Studies
  • Surveys and Questionnaires


  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin
  • hemoglobin A1c protein, human