Iron deficiency in infants and toddlers in the United States

Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2012 Nov;29(8):704-9. doi: 10.3109/08880018.2012.725199. Epub 2012 Oct 2.


Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) continues to be overwhelmingly the leading cause of anemia in early childhood and a global public health challenge. Although there has been a significant decrease in the frequency of IDA and iron deficiency (ID) in infants and toddlers in recent years in the United States, ID and IDA persist and the adverse effects of ID are long-lasting if not permanent. Moreover, ID can result in lead toxicity, and this toxic exposure, even with low levels, can impair neurocognitive function as well. This review describes the major steps that have taken place to decrease the frequency of ID and IDA.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anemia, Iron-Deficiency / epidemiology*
  • Anemia, Iron-Deficiency / etiology
  • Anemia, Iron-Deficiency / prevention & control
  • Child, Preschool
  • Environmental Exposure / adverse effects
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Iron / deficiency*
  • Lead
  • Lead Poisoning / complications
  • Lead Poisoning / epidemiology
  • Lead Poisoning / prevention & control
  • Male
  • United States / epidemiology


  • Lead
  • Iron