LOXL2 in epithelial cell plasticity and tumor progression

Future Oncol. 2012 Sep;8(9):1095-108. doi: 10.2217/fon.12.105.


Several members of the lysyl oxidase family have recently emerged as important regulators of tumor progression. Among them, LOXL2 has been shown to be involved in tumor progression and metastasis of several tumor types, including breast carcinomas. Secreted LOXL2 participates in the remodeling of the extracellular matrix of the tumor microenvironment, in a similar fashion to prototypical lysyl oxidase. In addition, new intracellular functions of LOXL2 have been described, such as its involvement in the regulation of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, epithelial cell polarity and differentiation mediated by transcriptional repression mechanisms. Importantly, intracellular (perinuclear) expression of LOXL2 is associated with poor prognosis and distant metastasis of specific tumor types, such as larynx squamous cell carcinoma and basal breast carcinomas. These recent findings open new avenues for the therapeutic utility of LOXL2.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Oxidoreductases / metabolism
  • Amino Acid Oxidoreductases / physiology*
  • Animals
  • Cell Adhesion
  • Cell Polarity
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Disease Progression
  • Epithelial Cells / enzymology*
  • Epithelial Cells / physiology
  • Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition
  • Humans
  • Neoplasms / enzymology*
  • Neoplasms / pathology


  • Amino Acid Oxidoreductases
  • LOXL2 protein, human