Psychometric properties of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia-11 (TSK-11)

J Pain. 2012 Oct;13(10):970-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2012.07.001.


The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of an abbreviated version of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK) in a clinical sample of patients with chronic pain. Chronic pain patients (n = 276) seeking treatment at an interdisciplinary treatment center completed self-report questionnaires including the TSK-13, and 2 tests of physical functioning. Four competing models of the TSK were tested using confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency was assessed, as were discriminant evidence of construct validity and concurrent criterion-related validity. Incremental validity was assessed with hierarchical multiple regressions controlling for pain severity. The analyses indicated that an 11-item, 2-factor structure best fit the data. The first factor, somatic focus, consisted of 5 items, while the second factor, activity avoidance, was comprised of 6 items. The TSK-11 scales demonstrated acceptable levels of internal consistency, as well as evidence of discriminant, concurrent criterion-related, and incremental validity. Somatic focus uniquely predicted perceived disability while activity avoidance uniquely predicted actual physical performance, controlling for pain severity. The 2-factor structure of the TSK-11 was found to be a brief, reliable, and valid measure of fear of movement/(re)injury for chronic pain patients. We recommend that the TSK-11 be used in future research and in clinical settings.

Perspective: In this study, confirmatory factor analysis identified the 2-factor TSK-11 as the best fitting model of TSK factor structure. The TSK-11 is a brief, reliable, and valid measure of fear of movement/(re)injury for chronic pain patients.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Chronic Pain / psychology*
  • Fear / psychology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Movement*
  • Pain Measurement
  • Phobic Disorders / diagnosis*
  • Phobic Disorders / psychology
  • Psychometrics
  • Self Report
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Surveys and Questionnaires