The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of an abbreviated version of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK) in a clinical sample of patients with chronic pain. Chronic pain patients (n = 276) seeking treatment at an interdisciplinary treatment center completed self-report questionnaires including the TSK-13, and 2 tests of physical functioning. Four competing models of the TSK were tested using confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency was assessed, as were discriminant evidence of construct validity and concurrent criterion-related validity. Incremental validity was assessed with hierarchical multiple regressions controlling for pain severity. The analyses indicated that an 11-item, 2-factor structure best fit the data. The first factor, somatic focus, consisted of 5 items, while the second factor, activity avoidance, was comprised of 6 items. The TSK-11 scales demonstrated acceptable levels of internal consistency, as well as evidence of discriminant, concurrent criterion-related, and incremental validity. Somatic focus uniquely predicted perceived disability while activity avoidance uniquely predicted actual physical performance, controlling for pain severity. The 2-factor structure of the TSK-11 was found to be a brief, reliable, and valid measure of fear of movement/(re)injury for chronic pain patients. We recommend that the TSK-11 be used in future research and in clinical settings.
Perspective: In this study, confirmatory factor analysis identified the 2-factor TSK-11 as the best fitting model of TSK factor structure. The TSK-11 is a brief, reliable, and valid measure of fear of movement/(re)injury for chronic pain patients.
Copyright © 2012 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.