Objective: To assess the prevalence and factors associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) in HIV-infected adolescents.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of a Brazilian cohort of vertically HIV-infected adolescents. Body composition and lumbar spine (LS) and total body (TB) BMD were estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Low BMD was considered for a Z-score ≤-2 standard deviations. Pubertal development, anthropometric data, laboratory measurements, antiretroviral regimen, and time of immunological and virological recovery were evaluated as factors associated with a low BMD.
Results: Seventy-four adolescents aged 17.3 ± 1.8 years were studied. Low BMD was present in 32.4% of them. LS and TB BMD Z-scores were positively correlated with weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI Z-score, total body fat, and nutritional status. Patients on tenofovir had lower LS and TB BMD Z-scores. Time on tenofovir was indirectly correlated with LS and TB BMD Z-scores. No difference was found regarding levels of calcium, parathyroid hormone, or 25-hydroxyvitamin D according to BMD status.
Conclusions: Control of the HIV infection, especially before the initiation of puberty, might have a positive influence on bone gain. Body composition and nutritional status had a positive influence on BMD that was more evident in females, suggesting that nutritional intervention may have a positive impact on BMD.
Copyright © 2012 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.