Curcumin is the principal curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice turmeric and has attracted increasing attention for the treatment of a range of conditions. Research into its potential as a treatment for depression is still in its infancy, although several potential antidepressant mechanisms of action have been identified. Research completed to date on the multiple effects of curcumin is reviewed in this paper, with a specific emphasis on the biological systems that are compromised in depression. The antidepressant effects of curcumin in animal models of depression are summarised, and its influence on neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine is detailed. The effects of curcumin in moderating hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal disturbances, lowering inflammation and protecting against oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, neuroprogression and intestinal hyperpermeability, all of which are compromised in major depressive disorder, are also summarised. With increasing interest in natural treatments for depression, and efforts to enhance current treatment outcomes, curcumin is presented as a promising novel, adjunctive or stand-alone natural antidepressant.