Objective: The prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3) score in urine is a promising biomarker for prostate cancer. Real-time elastography (RTE) is a well-documented ultrasound modality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability to detect significant cancer foci in the prostate with these methods alone and in combination.
Material and methods: From September 2009 to September 2010, 40 patients planned for radical prostatectomy underwent a PCA3 urine test and RTE before operation. A Hitachi EUB-8500 with prostate end-fire transrectal probe was used. The PCA3 score was evaluated with a standard cut-off value of 35. RTE was evaluated in correlation with whole-mount section pathology. Three patients fulfilled the criteria for insignificant prostate cancer and were excluded from the study.
Results: The PCA3 score was increased in 26 patients (70%). RTE identified at least one tumour in 33 out of 37 patients (89%). RTE detected the largest tumour in 27 out of 37 patients (73%). More than one cancer was present in 29 patients and RTE identified more than one tumour in 13 of these. The RTE was false positive in four patients. The PCA3 score was increased in three out of four false-negative RTE patients. By combining both methods, 36 out of 37 patients (97%) with significant prostate cancer were detected.
Conclusions: The combination of PCA3 score and RTE detected 97% of significant prostate cancers. The combinative use of RTE and PCA3 will be further investigated in an unselected series of men with suspected prostate cancer.