This study examined whether urine dipstick testing might be useful to predict the development of acute kidney injury after an ultramarathon. Participants in the 2011 161-km Western States Endurance Run underwent post-race blood and urine dipstick analyses. Of the 310 race finishers, post-race urine dipstick testing was completed on 152 (49%) and post-race blood also was obtained from 150 of those runners. Based on "injury" and "risk" criteria for acute kidney injury of blood creatinine 2.0 and 1.5 times estimated baseline, respectively, 4% met the criteria for injury and an additional 29-30% met the criteria for risk of injury. Those meeting the injury criteria had higher creatine kinase concentrations (P < 0.001) than those not meeting the criteria. Urine dipstick tests that read positive for at least 1+ protein, 3+ blood, and specific gravity ≥ 1.025 predicted those meeting the injury criteria with sensitivity of 1.00 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54-1.00), specificity of 0.76 (95% CI 0.69-0.83), positive predictive value of 0.15 (95% CI 0.06-0.30), negative predictive value of 1.00 (95% CI 0.97-1.00), and likelihood ratio for a positive test of 4.2. We conclude that urine dipstick testing was successfully able to identify those individuals meeting injury criteria for acute kidney injury with excellent sensitivity and specificity.