Warts and all: human papillomavirus in primary immunodeficiencies

J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012 Nov;130(5):1030-48. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2012.07.049. Epub 2012 Oct 1.

Abstract

Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is almost universal and eventually asymptomatic, but pathologic infection with HPV is severe, recurrent, and recalcitrant to therapy. It is also an underappreciated manifestation of primary immunodeficiency. Mutations in EVER1, EVER2, GATA2, CXCR4, and dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) are typically associated with extensive HPV infections, whereas several other primary immune defects result in severe HPV much less frequently. We review immunodeficiencies with severe HPV infections and the mechanisms underlying them.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors / genetics
  • Humans
  • Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes / complications
  • Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes / genetics
  • Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes / immunology*
  • Membrane Proteins / genetics
  • Papillomaviridae / immunology*
  • Papillomavirus Infections / etiology
  • Papillomavirus Infections / genetics
  • Papillomavirus Infections / immunology*
  • Polymorphism, Genetic
  • Proteinase Inhibitory Proteins, Secretory / genetics
  • Receptors, CXCR4 / genetics
  • Risk Factors
  • Serine Peptidase Inhibitor Kazal-Type 5
  • Tumor Virus Infections / etiology
  • Tumor Virus Infections / genetics
  • Tumor Virus Infections / immunology*
  • Warts / etiology
  • Warts / genetics
  • Warts / immunology*

Substances

  • CXCR4 protein, human
  • DOCK8 protein, human
  • Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Proteinase Inhibitory Proteins, Secretory
  • Receptors, CXCR4
  • SPINK5 protein, human
  • Serine Peptidase Inhibitor Kazal-Type 5
  • TMC6 protein, human
  • TMC8 protein, human