We investigated the obstetric and gynecological history of 54 consecutive women (aged 16-62 years, median of 35 years) with newly diagnosed celiac sprue and 54 healthy controls matched for age, origin, and sexual behavior. The mean age of menarche was significantly delayed in these untreated patients with respect to controls (13.5 vs. 12.1 years; p less than 0.0001). Of the patients, 38.8% complained of amenorrhea, compared with 9.2% of the controls (p less than 0.001). Thirty-eight patients and 38 controls were in reproductive age; they had a normal sexual life and did not use contraceptive measures. Five celiacs, but no controls, had repeated abortions (p less than 0.03). Eight celiacs and six controls were in menopause, the mean age at onset being 45.5 and 49.5 years respectively (not significant).