Usefulness of the LCOPD, CAFS and CASIS scales in understanding the impact of COPD on patients

Respiration. 2013;86(3):190-200. doi: 10.1159/000341175. Epub 2012 Oct 2.


Background: The Living with COPD (LCOPD), COPD and Asthma Fatigue Scale (CAFS), and COPD and Asthma Sleep Impact Scale (CASIS) are instruments developed to assess the overall impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on daily life, fatigue, and sleep impairment, respectively.

Objectives: To assess the usefulness of these instruments and to identify factors associated with the concepts they measure.

Method: The questionnaires were administered to patients with moderate to severe COPD. Descriptive analyses of sociodemographic and clinical data were performed, and bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify factors associated with the overall impact of COPD on patients' lives, fatigue, and sleep impairment.

Results: A total of 408 patients was included (mostly males, 91.2%), with an average age of 68 years (SD = 9.3). Statistically significant differences were observed in the scores of the three questionnaires with regard to level of education, presence of chronic cough or expectoration, level of dyspnea, number of exacerbations, physical activity level, presence of depression and anxiety, and number of treatments indicated for COPD. The LCOPD and CAFS questionnaires also discriminated between different levels of airflow obstruction and, in the case of CAFS, age and gender. Linear regression showed that level of dyspnea, physical activity, and presence of anxiety were significantly related to the LCOPD, CAFS and CASIS scores. The presence of depression was significant in the LCOPD and CAFS questionnaires and chronic cough was significant in the CAFS questionnaire.

Conclusions: The LCOPD, CAFS, and CASIS instruments are valid and useful in understanding the overall impact of COPD on daily life, fatigue, and sleep impairment in patients with moderate to severe COPD.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Fatigue / etiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / complications
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / psychology*
  • Quality of Life
  • Sleep Wake Disorders / etiology
  • Surveys and Questionnaires*