Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor in 66 patients with myeloid or lymphoid neoplasms and recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with invasive fungal disease

Acta Haematol. 2013;129(1):26-34. doi: 10.1159/000342121. Epub 2012 Oct 2.

Abstract

Background/aims: Adding granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) may improve the response to antifungal therapy in immunosuppressed patients with invasive fungal disease (IFD).

Methods: We retrospectively assessed 66 patients in whom GM-CSF was given during antifungal therapy.

Results: Severe neutropenia (77%) and refractory/relapsed cancer (65%) were common in the group. Prior to GM-CSF therapy, 15% of patients received high-dose corticosteroids for a median of 30 ± 16 days [median cumulative dose (c.d.) 1,184 ± 1,019 mg], and 9 received steroids during GM-CSF therapy for a median of 16 ± 12 days (median c.d. 230 ± 1,314 mg). Mild toxic effects were noted in 9% of patients; there were no cases of cardiopulmonary toxicity. All-cause deaths were observed in 68% of patients and 48% died of progressive IFD. High-dose corticosteroids prior to GM-CSF (OR 24; 95% CI 2.21-264.9; p ≤ 0.009), GM-CSF started in the intensive care unit (OR 10; 95% CI 1.66-63.8; p ≤ 0.01), concurrent granulocyte transfusions (OR 5; 95% CI 1.27-16.8; p ≤ 0.02) and proven/probable IFD (OR 4; 95% CI 1-16.2; p ≤ 0.05) predicted antifungal treatment failure.

Conclusions: GM-CSF adjuvant therapy was tolerated without serous toxicity and antifungal treatment failure remained a challenge in patients treated with high-dose systemic corticosteroids.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Antifungal Agents / therapeutic use
  • Child
  • Female
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / therapeutic use*
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation*
  • Humans
  • Immunocompromised Host
  • Leukemia, Lymphoid / complications
  • Leukemia, Lymphoid / therapy*
  • Leukemia, Myeloid / complications
  • Leukemia, Myeloid / therapy*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mycoses / complications
  • Mycoses / drug therapy*
  • Mycoses / mortality
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Young Adult

Substances

  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones
  • Antifungal Agents
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor