The GABA(A) receptors are the major inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in mammalian brain. Each isoform consists of five homologous or identical subunits surrounding a central chloride ion-selective channel gated by GABA. How many isoforms of the receptor exist is far from clear. GABA(A) receptors located in the postsynaptic membrane mediate neuronal inhibition that occurs in the millisecond time range; those located in the extrasynaptic membrane respond to ambient GABA and confer long-term inhibition. GABA(A) receptors are responsive to a wide variety of drugs, e.g. benzodiazepines, which are often used for their sedative/hypnotic and anxiolytic effects.