LCoS nematic SLM characterization and modeling for diffraction efficiency optimization, zero and ghost orders suppression

Opt Express. 2012 Jul 30;20(16):17843-55. doi: 10.1364/OE.20.017843.


Pixilated spatial light modulators are efficient devices to shape the wavefront of a laser beam or to perform Fourier optical filtering. When conjugated with the back focal plane of a microscope objective, they allow an efficient redistribution of laser light energy. These intensity patterns are usually polluted by undesired spots so-called ghosts and zero-orders whose intensities depend on displayed patterns. In this work, we propose a model to account for these discrepancies and demonstrate the possibility to efficiently reduce the intensity of the zero-order up to 95%, the intensity of the ghost up to 96% and increase diffraction efficiency up to 44%. Our model suggests physical cross-talk between pixels and thus, filtering of addressed high spatial frequencies. The method implementation relies on simple preliminary characterization of the SLM and can be computed a priori with any phase profile. The performance of this method is demonstrated employing a Hamamatsu LCoS SLM X10468-02 with two-photon excitation of fluorescent Rhodamine layers.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Fluorescence
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional
  • Lenses
  • Light*
  • Liquid Crystals / chemistry*
  • Neurons / cytology
  • Optics and Photonics*
  • Silicon / chemistry*


  • Silicon