[Cannabis: Use and dependence]

Presse Med. 2012 Dec;41(12 Pt 1):1233-40. doi: 10.1016/j.lpm.2012.07.016. Epub 2012 Oct 5.
[Article in French]


The main characteristics of cannabis dependence are craving, persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control cannabis use and important social, occupational, or recreational activities given up or reduced because of cannabis use. Withdrawal symptoms include insomnia, irritability, anger, restlessness, depression, mood swings and cravings. Regular cannabis use induces cognitive impairment, especially of attention, episodic memory and working memory. Alcohol and other substances abuse or dependence are frequently found in patients with cannabis dependence. Psychiatric comorbidities are frequent in patients with cannabis dependence, in particular anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and personality disorders. The treatment of cannabis dependence includes behavioral psychotherapy, especially motivational interviewing and cognitive-behavioral therapy, alongside treatment of co-occurring mental health and substance use conditions. There are currently no available pharmacological treatment interventions for cannabis dependence. The treatment of cannabis dependence and withdrawal remains nonspecific.

Publication types

  • English Abstract

MeSH terms

  • Cannabis / adverse effects*
  • Cannabis / chemistry
  • Humans
  • Marijuana Abuse / drug therapy*
  • Substance Withdrawal Syndrome / drug therapy*