Cultured V79 Chinese hamster cells were exposed to continuous radiation, frequency 7.7 GHz, power density 30 mW/cm2 for 15, 30, and 60 min. The parameters investigated were the incorporation of [3H]thymidine and the frequency of chromosome aberrations. Data obtained by 2 methods (the incorporation of [3H]thymidine into DNA and autoradiography) showed that the inhibition of [3H]thymidine incorporation took place by complete prevention of DNA from entering into the S phase. The normal rate of incorporation of [3H]thymidine was recovered within 1 generation cycle of V79 cells. Mutagenic tests performed concurrently showed that even DNA macromolecules were involved in the process. In comparison with the control samples there was a higher frequency of specific chromosome lesions in cells that had been irradiated. Results discussed in this study suggest that microwave radiation causes changes in the synthesis as well as in the structure of DNA molecules.