Type 1 diabetes: current concepts in epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical care, and research

Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care. Nov-Dec 2012;42(10):269-91. doi: 10.1016/j.cppeds.2012.07.002.

Abstract

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease mediated by a combination of genetic and environmental triggers resulting in lymphocytic infiltration of pancreatic islets, destruction of beta cells, and lifelong dependency on exogenous insulin. Although T1D is prevalent (1 in 300) and its incidence is steadily increasing worldwide (3% per year), the exact gene-environment interactions precipitating the disease remain unknown. Living with T1D is challenging for patients, families, and caregivers. Because of the relative paucity of pediatric endocrinologists, general pediatricians and other subspecialists may occasionally be faced with the task of managing diabetes-related complaints. Herein, we provide a comprehensive review of the natural history, pathophysiology, and contemporary management of T1D. In addition, recent advances in T1D research are discussed.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Autoantibodies / blood
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Child
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1* / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1* / diagnosis
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1* / epidemiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1* / physiopathology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1* / therapy
  • Diabetic Ketoacidosis / blood
  • Diabetic Ketoacidosis / diagnosis
  • Diabetic Ketoacidosis / therapy
  • Female
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Global Health
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemia / chemically induced
  • Hypoglycemia / prevention & control
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / adverse effects
  • Incidence
  • Insulin / administration & dosage*
  • Insulin / adverse effects
  • Interdisciplinary Communication
  • Life Style
  • Obesity / complications
  • Patient Care Team
  • Patient Education as Topic
  • Prevalence
  • Prognosis
  • Risk Factors
  • United States / epidemiology

Substances

  • Autoantibodies
  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin
  • hemoglobin A1c protein, human