Anti-arthritic activity of the Indian leafy vegetable Cardiospermum halicacabum in Wistar rats and UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS identification of the putative active phenolic components

Inflamm Res. 2013 Jan;62(1):115-26. doi: 10.1007/s00011-012-0558-z. Epub 2012 Sep 29.


Objectives: The present work was carried out to investigate the free radical scavenging activity of the ethanol extract of C. halicacabum leaves (EECH), to study its antioxidant properties and anti-rheumatic effects in Wistar rats with CFA-induced arthritis, and to profile the phenolic components thereof by LC-MS/MS.

Methods: The free radical scavenging activities of the extract was evaluated by NO and superoxide anion scavenging assays. Arthritis was induced to the albino Wistar rats by CFA. Fifteen days after CFA induction, arthritic rats received EECH orally at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg daily for 20 days. Diclofenac sodium was used as reference standard. EECH is subjected to LC-MS/MS analysis for the identification of phenolic compounds.

Results: The IC(50) value of the EECH to scavenge the NO and superoxide radicals are 83 and 60 μg/ml respectively. Ultrasonography and histology images of hind limb in EECH treated groups confirmed the complete cartilage regeneration. The LC/MS/MS analysis indicated the presence of anti-inflammatory compounds luteolin-7-O-glucuronide, apigenin-7-O-glucuronide and chrysoeriol.

Conclusion: These findings lend pharmacological support to the reported folkloric use of C. halicacabum in the treatment and management of painful, arthritic inflammatory conditions.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Arthritis, Experimental / drug therapy*
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Male
  • Nitric Oxide / metabolism
  • Phytotherapy*
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology
  • Plant Extracts / therapeutic use*
  • Plant Leaves / chemistry
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Sapindaceae / chemistry*
  • Superoxides / metabolism
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry


  • Antioxidants
  • Plant Extracts
  • Superoxides
  • Nitric Oxide