Long-term creatine supplementation improves muscular performance during resistance training in older women

Eur J Appl Physiol. 2013 Apr;113(4):987-96. doi: 10.1007/s00421-012-2514-6. Epub 2012 Oct 7.


This study examined the effects of long-term creatine supplementation combined with resistance training (RT) on the one-repetition maximum (1RM) strength, motor functional performance (e.g., 30-s chair stand, arm curl, and getting up from lying on the floor tests) and body composition (e.g., fat-free mass, muscle mass, and % body fat using DEXA scans) in older women. Eighteen healthy women (64.9 ± 5.0 years) were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to either a creatine (CR, N = 9) or placebo (PL, N = 9) group. Both groups underwent a 12-week RT program (3 days week(-1)), consuming an equivalent amount of either creatine (5.0 g day(-1)) or placebo (maltodextrin). After 12 week, the CR group experienced a greater (P < 0.05) increase (Δ%) in training volume (+164.2), and 1RM bench press (+5.1), knee extension (+3.9) and biceps curl (+8.8) performance than the PL group. Furthermore, CR group gained significantly more fat-free mass (+3.2) and muscle mass (+2.8) and were more efficient in performing submaximal-strength functional tests than the PL group. No changes (P > 0.05) in body mass or % body fat were observed from pre- to post-test in either group. These results indicate that long-term creatine supplementation combined with RT improves the ability to perform submaximal-strength functional tasks and promotes a greater increase in maximal strength, fat-free mass and muscle mass in older women.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Absorptiometry, Photon
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Body Composition / drug effects
  • Brazil
  • Creatine / administration & dosage*
  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Motor Activity / drug effects
  • Muscle Contraction / drug effects*
  • Muscle Strength / drug effects*
  • Muscle, Skeletal / diagnostic imaging
  • Muscle, Skeletal / drug effects*
  • Organ Size / drug effects
  • Performance-Enhancing Substances / administration & dosage*
  • Resistance Training*
  • Sex Factors
  • Time Factors


  • Performance-Enhancing Substances
  • Creatine