The spectrum of urological malignancy in Lynch syndrome

Fam Cancer. 2013 Mar;12(1):57-63. doi: 10.1007/s10689-012-9573-z.


Urological tumours are the third most frequent malignancy in Lynch syndrome after colonic and endometrial cancer. Upper urinary tract tumours are well recognised in Lynch syndrome, but the association with prostate and bladder cancer is controversial. We determined the incidence and cumulative and relative risks of prostate and bladder cancer in a cohort of Lynch syndrome families. Male Lynch syndrome mutation carriers and their genetically untested male first degree relatives (FDR) were identified from the Manchester Regional Lynch syndrome database (n = 821). Time to the development of urological cancer was identified for each urological site (renal pelvis, ureter, bladder and prostate). Cumulative and relative risks were calculated, with results classified by mutation carrier status and specific causative genetic mutations. Eight prostate cancers were identified, only one occurring before the age of 60. Analysis of person-years at risk of prostate cancer by Lynch syndrome mutation carrier status suggests a correlation between MSH2 mutation carriers and a tenfold increased risk of prostate cancer (RR 10.41; 95 % CI 2.80, 26.65). No such association was found with bladder cancer (RR 1.88; 95 % CI 0.21, 6.79). The association of upper urinary tract tumours with MSH2 and MLH1 mutations was confirmed. We have carried out the largest study of male Lynch syndrome mutation carriers to establish the risks of urological malignancy. A tenfold increased risk of prostate cancer is supported in MSH2 with mutation carriers having roughly double the risk of prostate cancer to FDRs. A trial of PSA testing in MSH2 carriers from 40 to 50 years may be justifiable.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Child
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / genetics
  • Colorectal Neoplasms, Hereditary Nonpolyposis / epidemiology*
  • Colorectal Neoplasms, Hereditary Nonpolyposis / genetics
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Survival Analysis
  • Urologic Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Urologic Neoplasms / genetics
  • Young Adult