In 141 patients with chronic pancreatitis and an inflammatory enlargement of the head of the pancreas, a duodenum-preserving resection of the head of the pancreas was performed within a 16-year period. The hospital mortality was 0.7%; the late mortality was 5%. Seventy-seven percent of the patients were completely free of abdominal pain; 67% returned to their former occupation. After a follow-up period of 3.6 years, glucose metabolism was unchanged in 81.7% of the patients, in 10.1% it deteriorated, and in 8.3% it improved permanently. In patients with severe chronic pancreatitis and an inflammatory mass in the head of the pancreas, a duodenum-preserving resection of the head of the pancreas is an alternative procedure to the Whipple operation. The surgical technique of the duodenum-preserving resection includes 2 major steps: first, subtotal resection of the head of the pancreas conserving the duodenum; second, restitution of the exocrine pancreatic secretory flow from the body and tail of the pancreas by using the first jejunal loop as an interposition. In comparison to the Whipple procedure, the duodenum-preserving resection of the head of the pancreas in chronic pancreatitis spares the patient a gastric resection, a duodenectomy, and a common bile duct resection. With respect to long-lasting pain relief and preservation of the endocrine function of the pancreas, duodenum-preserving resection of the head is a highly effective surgical procedure with a low early and late morbidity and mortality due to the limited surgical resection.