High prevalence and associated risk factors for impaired renal function and urinary abnormalities in a rural adult population from southern China

PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e47100. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047100. Epub 2012 Oct 9.


Background: The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has increased and will continue to rise worldwide. However, data regarding the prevalence of CKD in a rural area of China are limited. We therefore investigated the prevalence and associated risk factors of impaired renal function and urinary abnormalities in an adult rural population in southern China.

Methods: Between December 2006 and January 2007, residents older than 20 years from four villages in Zhuhai city were randomly selected using a stratified, multistage sampling technique. All participants were interviewed and tested for hematuria, albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The associations between age, gender, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperuricemia, education level and indicators of renal damage were examined.

Results: Overall, 1,214 subjects were enrolled in this study. After adjustment for age and gender, the prevalence of albuminuria was 7.1% (95% CI: 4.5, 8.1), reduced eGFR was 2.6% (95% CI: 1.7%, 3.3%), and hematuria was 4.6% (95% CI: 3.3%, 6.0%). Approximately 13.6% (95% CI: 12.0%, 15.1%) of the patients had at least one indicator of renal damage, but only 8.3% were previously aware. Age, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, hyperuricemia, use of nephrotoxic medications, coronary heart disease and history of CKD were independently associated with impaired renal function and urinary abnormalities. Additionally, age, diabetes, and hypertension were independently associated with albuminuria. Age, hypertension, hyperuricemia, central obesity, and coronary heart disease were independently associated with reduced renal function.

Conclusions: The high prevalence and low awareness of impaired renal function and urinary abnormalities in this population illustrates the urgent need to implement a CKD prevention program in the rural areas of southern China.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Albuminuria / epidemiology
  • Albuminuria / etiology
  • China / epidemiology
  • Coronary Disease / complications
  • Female
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate / physiology
  • Hematuria / epidemiology
  • Hematuria / etiology
  • Humans
  • Hyperlipidemias / complications
  • Hypertension / complications
  • Kidney Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Kidney Diseases / etiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Rural Population / statistics & numerical data

Grant support

This work was supported by grants from the Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2011CB504000), the National Natural Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholar (No. 30925019), Guangdong Province University academic and discipline development (No. 2010-76), International Joint Research Program of Ministry of Science and Technology of China (No. 2009DFA32820), and 5010 clinical program of Sun Yat-sen University to Dr. Xueqing Yu. Dr. Wei Chen was supported by grants from National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 30971378), Outstanding Young Teachers Foundation of Sun Yat-sen University (09ykpy23). Dr. Qinghua Liu was supported by grants from Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (20100171120067), Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province (10451008901005957), and Medical Scientific Research Foundation of Guangdong Province (A2010148). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.