Experimental custom-made zirconia abutments for narrow implants in esthetically demanding regions: a 5-year follow-up

Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2012 Sep-Oct;27(5):1239-42.


Purpose: This prospective clinical study evaluated an experimental custom-made zirconia abutment with respect to peri-implant hard and soft tissue reaction in narrow implants.

Materials and methods: Patients were treated with prefabricated titanium implants and custom-made zirconia abutments. All-ceramic crowns were fabricated and cemented with resin cement. Clinical parameters such as Plaque Index, Sulcus Bleeding Index, peri-implant probing depth, and radiographic marginal bone loss levels were recorded, along with any biologic and mechanical complications, at baseline and up to 5 years.

Results: Twelve patients with missing maxillary lateral incisors treated with a total of 23 implants were evaluated. Thirteen Straumann Narrow Neck Solid Screw implants with a diameter of 3.3 mm and 10 Astra MicroThread implants with a diameter of 3.5 mm were used. Six patients with 11 implants were treated with custom-made zirconia abutments and prefabricated metal abutments were used in the control group. Implant and abutment success at 5 years was 100%. No abutment fractures occurred. Abutment screw loosening was reported for one restoration at the 1-year recall. Mean marginal bone loss measured 0.21 mm after 5 years of functional loading.

Conclusion: Custom-made zirconia abutments offered sufficient stability to support all-ceramic restorations over narrow implants in anterior regions over a 5-year period. The soft and hard tissue reactions to zirconia were favorable.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Crowns
  • Dental Abutments* / adverse effects
  • Dental Implants, Single-Tooth*
  • Dental Porcelain*
  • Esthetics, Dental*
  • Female
  • Foreign-Body Reaction / pathology
  • Humans
  • Incisor
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Maxilla
  • Prospective Studies
  • Young Adult
  • Zirconium*


  • Dental Porcelain
  • Zirconium
  • zirconium oxide