Three renal cytochrome P450s (P450 K-2, K-4, and K-5) were purified from renal microsomes of untreated male rats. Also, the human renal cytochrome P450 (P450 HK) was partially purified from renal microsomes and its properties were compared with those of the rat renal cytochrome P450s. The molecular weight of P450 K-2, K-4, and K-5 was 52,000 on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The absolute spectrum of the oxidized forms indicated that they had the low-spin state of heme, and the CO-reduced spectral maxima of P450 K-2, K-4, and K-5 were at 449, 451, and 452 nm, respectively. NH2-terminal sequence analysis of P450 K-2, K-4, and K-5 showed that these forms were different from hepatic cytochrome P450s purified previously. P450 K-2, K-4, and K-5 catalyzed the O-dealkylation of 7-ethoxycoumarin but were not efficient in the hydroxylation of testosterone. Aminopyrine was metabolized by P450 K-2 and K-4 but not by P450 K-5. Lauric acid was metabolized efficiently by all of these forms in the presence of cytochrome b5. The regiospecificity of these forms toward lauric acid was different. P450 K-2 hydroxylated lauric acid only at the (omega-1)-position, not at the omega-position. P450 K-4 and K-5 hydroxylated lauric acid at both the omega- and (omega-1)-positions. The ratios of omega/(omega-1)-hydroxylation activity of P450 K-4 and K-5 were 2.5 and 7.8, respectively. Human P450 HK was purified 220-fold and its specific content was 2.0 nmol/mg of protein. The Soret maxima of P450 HK were at 418 nm for the oxidized form, 416 nm for the reduced form, and 450 nm for the CO-reduced form. P450 HK catalyzed the O-dealkylation of 7-ethoxycoumarin but was not efficient in aminopyrine N-demethylation or testosterone hydroxylation. P450 HK had high lauric acid omega- and (omega-1)-hydroxylation activities in the presence of cytochrome b5, especially omega-hydroxylation. These properties resembled those of P450 K-5 most closely. Anti-P450 K-5 antibody cross-reacted with P450 HK as well as P450 K-5 and only one band was stained on immunostained Western blotting for partially purified P450 HK. The molecular weight of P450 HK was 52,000 on Western blotting.