The heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1) was reported to be participated in tumor development. The association between hnRNP A1 and liver cancer and the functional role of hnRNP A1 in liver cancer have never been reported. Herein, hnRNP A1-specific single-stranded DNA aptamer, BC15, was used to (a) evaluate hnRNP A1 expression in liver cancer, and (b) treat hepatocarcinoma by acting as an inhibitor of hnRNP A1. Results showed that there is high hnRNP A1 expression in liver cancer including serum α-fetoprotein-negative liver cancer tissues compared with either para-cancer or benign controls. Down regulation of hnRNP A1 expression by RNA interference inhibits the proliferation and migration of cancerous HepG2 cells, while overexpression of hnRNP A1 in normal HL-7702 cells increased the proliferation and migration of the cells. Importantly, BC15 showed a stronger inhibiting effect on the proliferation of cultured hepatoma cells than hnRNP A1 small interfering RNA, strongly suggesting that BC15 could also be a potential drug candidate for an hnRNP A1 inhibitor besides its prospect utility in in situ histological examination.