Accumulating evidence suggests that protein acetylation plays a major regulatory role in many facets of transcriptional control of metabolism. The enzymes that catalyze the addition and removal of acetyl moieties are the histone acetyl transferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs), respectively. Several recent studies have uncovered novel mechanisms and contexts in which different HDACs play crucial roles in metabolic control. Understanding the role of class I and II HDACs in different metabolic programs during development, as well as in the physiology and pathology of the adult organism, will lead to novel therapeutics for metabolic disease. Here, we review the current understanding of how class I and class II HDACs contribute to metabolic control.
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