Learned helplessness in systemic lupus erythematosus: analysis using the Rheumatology Attitudes Index

Arthritis Rheum. 1990 Feb;33(2):281-6. doi: 10.1002/art.1780330220.


The Rheumatology Attitudes Index (RAI) was administered to 138 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) to determine its reliability and to examine the construct of learned helplessness in patients with this disease. The internal consistency of the RAI was indicated by Cronbach's standardized alpha value (alpha = 0.70). Significant correlations were observed between RAI scores and the Modified Health Assessment Questionnaire Activities of Daily Living difficulty (r = 0.34, P less than or equal to 0.001) and dissatisfaction (r = 0.32, P less than or equal to 0.001) scores, the 10-cm visual analog pain scale (r = 0.42, P less than or equal to 0.001), and the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale raw total (r = 0.63, P less than or equal to 0.01). These findings support the external validity of the RAI in SLE. In addition, these data suggest that the learned helplessness construct might be relevant to the outcomes of morbidity and mortality in patients with SLE.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Activities of Daily Living
  • Adult
  • Attitude to Health*
  • Female
  • Helplessness, Learned*
  • Humans
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic* / psychology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Social Adjustment
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Surveys and Questionnaires