Recent military operations in Afghanistan and Iraq have involved multiple deployments and significant combat exposure, resulting in high rates of mental health problems. However, rates of treatment-seeking among military personnel are relatively low, and the military environment poses several obstacles to engaging in effective clinical interventions. The current paper first reviews barriers and facilitators of treatment-seeking and engagement among military personnel, including stigma, practical barriers, perceptions of mental health problems, and attitudes towards treatment. Next, this paper reviews treatment adaptations and other interventions that are intended to reduce barriers to care among active duty and returning military personnel. These include early interventions, brief formats, integrating clinicians into the medical and military context, technology-based interventions, addressing negative treatment perceptions, screening/early identification, and enlisting unit support.
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