15-Lipoxygenase-1-mediated metabolism of docosahexaenoic acid is required for syndecan-1 signaling and apoptosis in prostate cancer cells

Carcinogenesis. 2013 Jan;34(1):176-82. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgs324. Epub 2012 Oct 11.


Fatty acid metabolism impacts multiple intracellular signaling pathways in many cell types, but its role in prostate cancer cells is still unclear. Our previous studies have shown that the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) induces apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells by a syndecan-1 (SDC-1)-dependent mechanism. Here, we examined the contribution of lipoxygenase (LOX)- and cyclooxygenase (COX)-mediated DHA metabolism to this effect. Pan-LOX inhibitor (nordihydroguaiaretic acid), 15-LOX inhibitor (luteolin) or 15/12-LOX inhibitor (baicalein) blocked the induced effect of DHA on SDC-1 expression and apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells, whereas 5-LOX inhibitor, AA861, was ineffective. Human prostate cancer cells lines (PC3, LNCaP and DU145 cells) expressed two 15-LOX isoforms, 15-LOX-1 and 15-LOX-2, with higher 15-LOX-1 and lower 15-LOX-2 expressions compared with human epithelial prostate cells. Knockdown of 15-LOX-1 blocked the effect of DHA on SDC-1 expression and caspase-3 activity, whereas silencing 15-LOX-2, 5-LOX, COX-1, COX-2 or 12-LOX had no effect. Moreover, the ability of DHA to inhibit the activity of the PDK/Akt (T308) signaling pathway was abrogated by silencing 15-LOX-1. These findings demonstrate that 15-LOX-1-mediated metabolism of DHA is required for it to upregulate SDC-1 and trigger the signaling pathway that elicits apoptosis in prostate cancer cells.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Apoptosis*
  • Arachidonate 15-Lipoxygenase / metabolism*
  • Docosahexaenoic Acids / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Signal Transduction*
  • Syndecan-1 / metabolism*


  • Syndecan-1
  • Docosahexaenoic Acids
  • Arachidonate 15-Lipoxygenase