Gender differences in determinants of condom use among HIV clients in Uganda

AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2012 Nov;26(11):694-9. doi: 10.1089/apc.2012.0208. Epub 2012 Oct 15.


Little research has examined gender differences in reporting of condom use, which is the goal of our analysis. A baseline study was conducted in two urban clinics and we examined data from sexually active clients entering HIV care who enrolled in a prospective longitudinal cohort study. The primary outcome was consistent condom use and determinant variables were demographics, physical health and immune status, economic well-being, relationship characteristics, psychosocial functioning, and self-efficacy. Of 280 participants, 129 were males and 151 females, and 41.7% had at least some secondary education; 60.7% did not always use condoms. Nearly half (48.1%) of men reported always using condoms compared to 31.8% of females. In bivariate analyses, men who consistently use condoms were more likely to be working, have a primary partner who was HIV negative, to have disclosed their HIV status to their primary partner, and to have higher general self-efficacy and condom use self-efficacy compared to men who did not always use condoms. Higher general self-efficacy and condom use self-efficacy were the only variables associated with reported consistent condom use among women. In regression analysis, working in the last 7 days, general self efficacy, and condom use self-efficacy were associated with consistent condom use among men. These findings reveal low rates of consistent condom use among people living with HIV, and a gender difference with men more likely to report consistent condom use. These data suggest the need for gender sensitive prevention programs and strategies, including programs that can provide women with greater control and self-efficacy regarding use of protective methods.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cohort Studies
  • Condoms / statistics & numerical data*
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / epidemiology
  • HIV Infections / prevention & control*
  • HIV Infections / psychology
  • HIV-1
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
  • Health Promotion
  • Humans
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Power, Psychological
  • Prospective Studies
  • Sex Distribution
  • Sexual Behavior / psychology
  • Sexual Behavior / statistics & numerical data
  • Sexual Partners*
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Substance-Related Disorders / epidemiology
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Uganda / epidemiology
  • Urban Population