The promoting potential of oxymetholone (OXM) administration on development of liver cell foci was investigated in male F344 rats previously treated with N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN). One week after a single injection of DEN (100 mg/kg, i.p.), rats were given OXM at a dietary level of 0.2% for the first 4 weeks and then at a concentration of 0.1% for an additional 35 weeks. All rats were killed at week 40 for histopathological and immunohistopathological examination of liver tissue. The numbers and areas of both clear cell and glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive foci were significantly increased in the group treated with DEN and OXM as compared with the respective values for the DEN alone group. The results thus suggested that OXM possesses promoting potential for rat liver carcinogenesis.