Purpose: Anaplastic oligodendroglioma are chemotherapy-sensitive tumors. We now present the long-term follow-up findings of a randomized phase III study on the addition of six cycles of procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy to radiotherapy (RT).
Patients and methods: Adult patients with newly diagnosed anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors were randomly assigned to either 59.4 Gy of RT or the same RT followed by six cycles of adjuvant PCV. An exploratory analysis of the correlation between 1p/19q status and survival was part of the study. Retrospectively, the methylation status of the methyl-guanine methyl transferase gene promoter and the mutational status of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) gene were determined. The primary end points were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival based on intent-to-treat analysis.
Results: A total of 368 patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 140 months, OS in the RT/PCV arm was significantly longer (42.3 v 30.6 months in the RT arm, hazard ratio [HR], 0.75; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.95). In the 80 patients with a 1p/19q codeletion, OS was increased, with a trend toward more benefit from adjuvant PCV (OS not reached in the RT/PCV group v 112 months in the RT group; HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.31 to 1.03). IDH mutational status was also of prognostic significance.
Conclusion: The addition of six cycles of PCV after 59.4 Gy of RT increases both OS and PFS in anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors. 1p/19q-codeleted tumors derive more benefit from adjuvant PCV compared with non-1p/19q-deleted tumors.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00002840.