A previous study provided an in-depth understanding of molecular population genetics of European and Asian wheat gene pools using a sequenced 3.1-Mb contig (ctg954) on chromosome 3BS. This region is believed to carry the Fhb1 gene for response to Fusarium head blight. In this study, 266 wheat accessions were evaluated in three environments for Type II FHB response based on the single floret inoculation method. Hierarchical clustering (UPGMA) based on a Manhattan dissimilarity matrix divided the accessions into eight groups according to five FHB-related traits which have a high correlation between them; Group VIII comprised six accessions with FHB response levels similar to variety Sumai 3. Based on the compressed mixed linear model (MLM), association analysis between five FHB-related traits and 42 molecular markers along the 3.1-Mb region revealed 12 significant association signals at a threshold of P<0.05. The highest proportion of phenotypic variation (6.2%) in number of diseased spikelets (NDS) occurred at locus cfb6059, and the physical distance was about 2.9 Kb between umn10 and this marker. Haplotype block (HapB) analysis using a sliding window LD of 5 markers, detected six HapBs in the 3.1-Mb region at r(2)>0.1 and P<0.001 between random closely linked markers. F-tests among Haps with frequencies >0.05 within each HapB at r(2)>0.1 and P<0.001 showed significant differences between the Hap carried by FHB resistant resources, such as Sumai 3 and Wangshuibai, and susceptible genotypes in HapB3 and HapB6. These results suggest that Fhb1 is located within HapB6, with the possibility that another gene is located at or near HapB3. SSR markers and Haps detected in this study will be helpful in further understanding the genetic basis of FHB resistance, and provide useful information for marker-assisted selection of Fhb1 in wheat breeding.