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Excitation of Surface Electromagnetic Waves in a Graphene-Based Bragg Grating


Excitation of Surface Electromagnetic Waves in a Graphene-Based Bragg Grating

Kandammathe Valiyaveedu Sreekanth et al. Sci Rep.


Here, we report the fabrication of a graphene-based Bragg grating (one-dimensional photonic crystal) and experimentally demonstrate the excitation of surface electromagnetic waves in the periodic structure using prism coupling technique. Surface electromagnetic waves are non-radiative electromagnetic modes that appear on the surface of semi-infinite 1D photonic crystal. In order to fabricate the graphene-based Bragg grating, alternating layers of high (graphene) and low (PMMA) refractive index materials have been used. The reflectivity plot shows a deepest, narrow dip after total internal reflection angle corresponds to the surface electromagnetic mode propagating at the Bragg grating/air boundary. The proposed graphene based Bragg grating can find a variety of potential surface electromagnetic wave applications such as sensors, fluorescence emission enhancement, modulators, etc.


Figure 1
Figure 1. (a) Reflection spectrum of graphene-based Bragg grating calculated by solving the 1D Helmholtz equations and (b) Schematic diagram of Kretschmann configuration (prism coupling technique) for exciting the surface electromagnetic waves in the multilayer.
Figure 2
Figure 2. (a) Schematic diagram of fabrication procedure for graphene-based Bragg grating, (b) Optical image of CVD-grown monolayer graphene on the substrate (SiO2/Si), (c) Raman spectra of monolayer graphene at four different position of the fabricated structure, (d) SEM cross section image of PMMA with an average thickness of 470 nm, and (e) Photograph of as prepared stack with 8 bilayers (graphene/PMMA).
Figure 3
Figure 3
(a) Experimental reflectance diagram (as a function of incident angle) acquired using prism coupling technique at optical frequency, where the blue line is for eye guide.The observed resonance angle is 70.7° and (b) Simulated reflectance date by solving the Fresnel's equations for multilayer structure, estimated resonance angle is 70.8°.
Figure 4
Figure 4. Surface dispersion diagram (band structure) of graphene-based Bragg grating for TM polarization.
Radiative and non-radiative regions (photonic bands) are represented by red dark region and narrow white regions, respectively. Light line for air is indicated by solid (blue) line. The hatched region represents the surface wave vector values that are radiative on the air side of the interface. Yellow dots represent the numerically estimated wave vector values for wavelengths 800 nm, 750 nm, 700 nm and 650 nm, and blue dot represents the experimentally obtained wave vector value for the wavelength 633 nm.
Figure 5
Figure 5. Simulated surface mode electromagnetic field distribution of graphene-based Bragg grating as a function of depth along the multilayer.
E-field is decaying along the y-direction of the multilayer.
Figure 6
Figure 6. Simulated reflectance diagram (a) for regular thin film dielectric Bragg grating, (b) for graphene-based Bragg grating terminated with an additional layer of graphene.
Corresponding sensitivity plot (c) for regular thin film dielectric Bragg grating, (d) for graphene-based Bragg grating terminated with an additional layer of graphene.

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