We have identified the major antigens or IgE binding components from wheat flour. Thirty-five sera from patients with baker's asthma were used to analyze the reaction with wheat salt-soluble proteins. We found a 15 kDa SDS-PAGE band which reacted with all sera tested. Purified members of the alpha-amylase inhibitor family, which are the main components of the 15 kDa band, were recognized by specific IgE when tested with a pool of reactive sera. Immunodetection after two-dimensional electrophoretic fractionation of crude inhibitor preparations from wheat endosperms also detected several inhibitor subunits as major low-molecular-weight allergens.