Absorption and metabolism of milk thistle flavanolignans in humans

Phytomedicine. 2012 Dec 15;20(1):40-6. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2012.09.004. Epub 2012 Oct 13.


This study evaluated the absorption and metabolism of milk thistle flavonolignans silychristin, silydianin, silybin and isosilybin isomers (all together known as silymarin) in humans. Fourteen volunteers consumed an extract of milk thistle and urine was collected up to 48 h after consumption. Thirty-one metabolites were identified in urine by means of HPLC-MS/MS, monoglucuronides being the most common excreted form, followed by sulphate-glucuronides and diglucuronides, respectively. The excretion of monoglucuronides peaked 2 h after consumption, whereas sulphate-glucuronide and diglucuronide excretion peaked at 8 h. The bioavailability of milk thistle flavanolignans was 0.45±0.28% (mean±SD). In conclusion, milk thistle flavonolignans are extensively modified after ingestion and recovered in urine as sulpho- and glucuronyl-conjugates, indicating a strong affinity for hepatic phase II enzymes. All future studies (in vitro and in vivo) dealing with the effects of milk thistle should start by considering the modification of its flavonolignans after ingestion by humans.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Biological Availability
  • Female
  • Glucuronides / urine*
  • Humans
  • Intestinal Absorption
  • Liver / enzymology
  • Liver / metabolism
  • Male
  • Milk Thistle / chemistry*
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacokinetics*
  • Plant Extracts / urine
  • Silymarin / analogs & derivatives
  • Silymarin / pharmacokinetics*
  • Silymarin / urine
  • Young Adult


  • Glucuronides
  • Plant Extracts
  • Silymarin