Objective: To analyse the long-term oncologic outcomes of a fertility-sparing management using oral progestin in young women with endometrial cancer.
Methods: We analysed 148 patients (age≤40 years) with stage IA, grade 1, endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterus who underwent fertility-sparing management using daily oral medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) or megestrol acetate (MA).
Results: 115 (77.7%) showed complete response (CR) to progestin treatment, and 35 (30.4%) of them experienced recurrence after median follow-up time of 66 months. The 5-year recurrence-free survival was 68% (95% confidence interval [CI], 58.5-76.9%). However, 33 patients (22.3%) who failed to achieve CR underwent definitive surgical management, and no one had recurrence after median follow-up time of 41 months. During progestin treatment and at the time of recurrence, no patient showed clinical progression of disease over stage IA. Body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m(2) was the only significant factor associated with a failure to achieve CR (odds ratio [OR], 3.00; 95% CI, 1.35-6.66; P=0.007). Upon multivariate analysis, BMI≥25 kg/m(2) (OR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.06-4.31; P=0.033) was significantly associated with a higher risk of recurrence and the use of MPA (compared to MA) (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.22-0.88; P=0.021), maintenance treatment (OR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.05-0.94; P=0.042) and pregnancy (OR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.11-0.56; P=0.001) were significantly associated with a lower risk of recurrence.
Conclusion: Fertility-sparing management was highly effective and safe. BMI<25 kg/m(2), MPA (compared to MA), maintenance treatment and pregnancy were associated with higher possibility of long-term success.
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