Periodontal health of children with type 1 diabetes mellitus in Kuwait: a case-control study

Med Princ Pract. 2013;22(2):144-9. doi: 10.1159/000342624. Epub 2012 Oct 13.


Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate periodontal health in children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Subjects and methods: Periodontal health was clinically examined and compared in 95 children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and 61 healthy control subjects (4-14 years old). Plaque index, gingival index, clinical attachment loss and bleeding on probing were assessed on the 6 Ramfjord index teeth. Diabetes history was recorded based on information provided by the physician from the medical record of each diabetic child. Diabetes history included date of diagnosis, diabetes duration, age at diagnosis, latest reading for glycosylated hemoglobin and any existing diabetes complications. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science software, version 18. 'Periodontitis' was defined as at least one site with clinical attachment loss >2 mm on at least 2 teeth.

Results: Sixty-two of the diabetic children (65%) had poor compliance with dental care, and 42 of them (44%) had never visited the dentist before. The children with type 1 diabetes mellitus had a significantly higher plaque index and gingival index and more bleeding on probing than control subjects (p < 0.001). In the diabetic group, periodontitis was significantly associated with longer duration of diabetes (odds ratio 2.230, confidence interval 1.308-3.801; p = 0.003) and older age at diagnosis of diabetes (odds ratio 1.838, confidence interval 1.091-3.096; p = 0.022).

Conclusions: Periodontal disease in young patients with type 1 diabetes was more evident than in those without diabetes. These data showed that diabetes duration may play a significant role in the progression of periodontal disease in diabetic children.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Dental Health Surveys
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / complications*
  • Disease Progression
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Kuwait / epidemiology
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Patient Compliance
  • Periodontal Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Prevalence