Chocolate milk: a post-exercise recovery beverage for endurance sports

Med Sport Sci. 2012:59:127-134. doi: 10.1159/000341954. Epub 2012 Oct 15.


An optimal post-exercise nutrition regimen is fundamental for ensuring recovery. Therefore, research has aimed to examine post-exercise nutritional strategies for enhanced training stimuli. Chocolate milk has become an affordable recovery beverage for many athletes, taking the place of more expensive commercially available recovery beverages. Low-fat chocolate milk consists of a 4:1 carbohydrate:protein ratio (similar to many commercial recovery beverages) and provides fluids and sodium to aid in post-workout recovery. Consuming chocolate milk (1.0-1.5•g•kg(-1) h(-1)) immediately after exercise and again at 2 h post-exercise appears to be optimal for exercise recovery and may attenuate indices of muscle damage. Future research should examine the optimal amount, timing, and frequency of ingestion of chocolate milk on post-exercise recovery measures including performance, indices of muscle damage, and muscle glycogen resynthesis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Physiological
  • Animals
  • Beverages*
  • Cacao*
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Exercise / physiology*
  • Exercise Tolerance / physiology*
  • Fluid Therapy / methods*
  • Glycogen / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Milk Proteins / metabolism
  • Milk*
  • Muscle, Skeletal / metabolism
  • Nutritional Status
  • Stress, Physiological
  • Time Factors


  • Milk Proteins
  • Glycogen