Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
. 2012 Oct 18;490(7420):373-5.
doi: 10.1038/nature11473.

Hard-X-ray Emission Lines From the Decay of 44Ti in the Remnant of Supernova 1987A

Affiliations

Hard-X-ray Emission Lines From the Decay of 44Ti in the Remnant of Supernova 1987A

S A Grebenev et al. Nature. .

Abstract

It is assumed that the radioactive decay of (44)Ti powers the infrared, optical and ultraviolet emission of supernova remnants after the complete decay of (56)Co and (57)Co (the isotopes that dominated the energy balance during the first three to four years after the explosion) until the beginning of active interaction of the ejecta with the surrounding matter. Simulations show that the initial mass of (44)Ti synthesized in core-collapse supernovae is (0.02-2.5) × 10(-4) solar masses (M circled dot). Hard X-rays and γ-rays from the decay of this (44)Ti have been unambiguously observed from Cassiopeia A only, leading to the suggestion that values of the initial mass of (44)Ti near the upper bound of the predictions occur only in exceptional cases. For the remnant of supernova 1987A, an upper limit to the initial mass of (44)Ti of <10(-3) M circled dot has been obtained from direct X-ray observations, and an estimate of (1-2) × 10(-4) M circled dot has been made from infrared light curves and ultraviolet spectra by complex and model-dependent computations. Here we report observations of hard X-rays from the remnant of supernova 1987A in the narrow band containing two direct-escape lines of (44)Ti at 67.9 and 78.4 keV. The measured line fluxes imply that this decay provided sufficient energy to power the remnant at late times. We estimate that the initial mass of (44)Ti was (3.1 ± 0.8) × 10(-4), which is near the upper bound of theoretical predictions.

Similar articles

  • X-ray illumination of the ejecta of supernova 1987A.
    Larsson J, Fransson C, Ostlin G, Gröningsson P, Jerkstrand A, Kozma C, Sollerman J, Challis P, Kirshner RP, Chevalier RA, Heng K, McCray R, Suntzeff NB, Bouchet P, Crotts A, Danziger J, Dwek E, France K, Garnavich PM, Lawrence SS, Leibundgut B, Lundqvist P, Panagia N, Pun CS, Smith N, Sonneborn G, Wang L, Wheeler JC. Larsson J, et al. Nature. 2011 Jun 8;474(7352):484-6. doi: 10.1038/nature10090. Nature. 2011. PMID: 21654749
  • Supernovae. ⁴⁴Ti gamma-ray emission lines from SN1987A reveal an asymmetric explosion.
    Boggs SE, Harrison FA, Miyasaka H, Grefenstette BW, Zoglauer A, Fryer CL, Reynolds SP, Alexander DM, An H, Barret D, Christensen FE, Craig WW, Forster K, Giommi P, Hailey CJ, Hornstrup A, Kitaguchi T, Koglin JE, Madsen KK, Mao PH, Mori K, Perri M, Pivovaroff MJ, Puccetti S, Rana V, Stern D, Westergaard NJ, Zhang WW. Boggs SE, et al. Science. 2015 May 8;348(6235):670-1. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa2259. Science. 2015. PMID: 25954004
  • Asymmetries in core-collapse supernovae from maps of radioactive 44Ti in Cassiopeia A.
    Grefenstette BW, Harrison FA, Boggs SE, Reynolds SP, Fryer CL, Madsen KK, Wik DR, Zoglauer A, Ellinger CI, Alexander DM, An H, Barret D, Christensen FE, Craig WW, Forster K, Giommi P, Hailey CJ, Hornstrup A, Kaspi VM, Kitaguchi T, Koglin JE, Mao PH, Miyasaka H, Mori K, Perri M, Pivovaroff MJ, Puccetti S, Rana V, Stern D, Westergaard NJ, Zhang WW. Grefenstette BW, et al. Nature. 2014 Feb 20;506(7488):339-42. doi: 10.1038/nature12997. Nature. 2014. PMID: 24553239
  • Cobalt-56 γ-ray emission lines from the type Ia supernova 2014J.
    Churazov E, Sunyaev R, Isern J, Knödlseder J, Jean P, Lebrun F, Chugai N, Grebenev S, Bravo E, Sazonov S, Renaud M. Churazov E, et al. Nature. 2014 Aug 28;512(7515):406-8. doi: 10.1038/nature13672. Nature. 2014. PMID: 25164750
  • Supernovae. The bubble-like interior of the core-collapse supernova remnant Cassiopeia A.
    Milisavljevic D, Fesen RA. Milisavljevic D, et al. Science. 2015 Jan 30;347(6221):526-30. doi: 10.1126/science.1261949. Science. 2015. PMID: 25635094
See all similar articles

References

    1. Nature. 2011 Jun 08;474(7352):484-6 - PubMed

Publication types

LinkOut - more resources

Feedback