Continuation of Smoking After Treatment of Laryngeal Cancer: An Independent Prognostic Factor?

ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 2012;74(5):250-4. doi: 10.1159/000342685. Epub 2012 Oct 13.


Aim: The aim of the study is to examine if continuation of smoking after treatment is an independent factor affecting the prognosis of laryngeal cancer.

Materials and methods: A total of 153 patients met the inclusion criteria for this prospective study, and they were followed up for 12-60 months. Smoking cessation/continuation rates were recorded and associated with disease recurrence and overall patient survival.

Results: The recurrence rate was 35.29%. Twenty-five percent of the patients continued smoking after treatment, 75% stopped. Of the patients who quit smoking, 28.69% died during the follow-up period, compared to 52.63% of those who continued (p = 0.0047). The respective recurrence rates were 28.7 and 55.26% (p = 0.0022). A stepwise multivariate Cox regression analysis eliminated potential confounders regarding the overall survival rate and confirmed that time between symptom onset and diagnosis, T and N stage and continuation of smoking after treatment are statistically significant factors. Among them, continuation of smoking was found to have the strongest correlation to the overall survival rate.

Conclusion: Continuation of smoking after treatment of laryngeal cancer is an independent negative prognostic factor. From a clinical standpoint, all patients with known laryngeal cancer should be strongly encouraged to quit smoking.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Carcinoma / mortality*
  • Carcinoma / psychology*
  • Carcinoma / therapy
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Laryngeal Neoplasms / mortality*
  • Laryngeal Neoplasms / psychology*
  • Laryngeal Neoplasms / therapy
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / psychology*
  • Prognosis
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking Cessation
  • Smoking*
  • Survival Rate