Celiac disease is one of the most common forms of food intolerance in children, being an autoimmune enteropathy occurring in genetically susceptible individuals. The only treatment of celiac disease consists in a lifelong strict gluten-free diet. After gluten free diet patients with normal weight or growth failure risk become obese on the one hand because of recovery intestinal absorption and, on the other hand, nutritionally unbalanced diet, high in fat and protein.
Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status and the presence and prevalence of various changes dyslipidemia in gluten free diet.
Material and methods: The trial was formed by 92 patients (mean age at diagnosis 88,5 months) diagnosed with CD between January 2008 - December 2010 in 2nd and 3rd Pediatric Clinics of "Sf. Maria" Hospital Iaşi. Patients were divided into two groups: group I included 36 patients younger than 2 years and group II included 52 patients aged over 2 years at time of diagnosis of celiac disease. All patients received gluten free diet. Were evaluated periodically anthropometric indices (weight, height, body mass index and Z scores in children over 2 years and weight and nutritional index in children under 2 years) and lipid profile (total lipids, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides). Assessing food intake was achieved by interviewing parents and children on dietary habits and daily food ration.
Results: Assessment of nutritional status: group I:--after 24 months of gluten free diet 5 cases presented overweight; group II: after 24 months of gluten free diet obesity (BMI > 30) was found in 16.07% of cases (9 patients) and overweight (BMI > 25) was found in 28.57% of cases (16 patients). Food intake: in all cases was observed increased calorie intake by an excess of lipids and carbohydrates in the diet. Investigation of lipid metabolism: in group II high values of cholesterol were found in 12 cases (21,42 of cases). In conclusions, in celiac disease gluten free diet should be balanced caloric, fat and protein to ensure an optimal nutritional status and prevent long-term complications.