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. 2012 Dec;196(4):1240-50.
doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2012.04370.x. Epub 2012 Oct 18.

A Multivariate Analysis of Variation in Genome Size and Endoreduplication in Angiosperms Reveals Strong Phylogenetic Signal and Association With Phenotypic Traits

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A Multivariate Analysis of Variation in Genome Size and Endoreduplication in Angiosperms Reveals Strong Phylogenetic Signal and Association With Phenotypic Traits

Jillian D Bainard et al. New Phytol. .
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Abstract

Genome size (C-value) and endopolyploidy (endoreduplication index, EI) are known to correlate with various morphological and ecological traits, in addition to phylogenetic placement. A phylogenetically controlled multivariate analysis was used to explore the relationships between DNA content and phenotype in angiosperms. Seeds from 41 angiosperm species (17 families) were grown in a common glasshouse experiment. Genome size (2C-value and 1Cx-value) and EI (in four tissues: leaf, stem, root, petal) were determined using flow cytometry. The phylogenetic signal was calculated for each measure of DNA content, and phylogenetic canonical correlation analysis (PCCA) explored how the variation in genome size and EI was correlated with 18 morphological and ecological traits. Phylogenetic signal (λ) was strongest for EI in all tissues, and λ was stronger for the 2C-value than the 1Cx-value. PCCA revealed that EI was correlated with pollen length, stem height, seed mass, dispersal mechanism, arbuscular mycorrhizal association, life history and flowering time, and EI and genome size were both correlated with stem height and life history. PCCA provided an effective way to explore multiple factors of DNA content variation and phenotypic traits in a phylogenetic context. Traits that were correlated significantly with DNA content were linked to plant competitive ability.

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