We report a fatal case of community-acquired Legionnaires' disease in an infant aged under six months. Epidemiological and microbiological investigations suggested that a free-standing cold water humidifier using domestic tap water contaminated with Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 served as a vehicle for infection. These findings were corroborated by sequence-based typing (SBT). Humidifier-associated Legionnaires' disease can be prevented by appropriate control measures. This case also illustrates the emerging role of SBT in the investigation of legionellosis.