Traumatic intracranial hematomas: prognostic value of contrast extravasation

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2013 Apr;34(4):773-9. doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A3309. Epub 2012 Oct 18.


Background and purpose: Contrast extravasation within spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage is a well-described predictor of hematoma growth, poor clinical outcome, and mortality. The purpose of this study was to assess the prognostic value of contrast extravasation in acute traumatic intracranial hematomas.

Materials and methods: In our institution, CTA (including PCCT) is the primary screening technique for cervical vascular injuries. Sixty consecutive patients with at least 1 acute intracranial hematoma (ICH, subdural hematoma, and/or epidural hematoma) meeting predefined size criteria, with CTA/PCCT performed within 24 hours of admission and follow-up CT within 72 hours of admission, were retrospectively evaluated for CE by 2 observers. The predictive value of CE for a composite outcome (hematoma expansion, need for hematoma evacuation, in-hospital mortality) was evaluated on a per-patient basis. Interobserver agreement for CE and the association between baseline variables and outcome were also examined. Different patterns of extravasation were evaluated on a per-lesion basis, with outcomes including hematoma expansion and evacuation.

Results: CE was present in 30 (50%) patients with almost perfect interobserver agreement (κ=0.87; 95% CI, 0.74-0.99). The per-patient multivariate analysis showed independent association of midline shift (P=.020), Glasgow Coma Scale score≤8 (P=.024), and CE (P=.017), with poor outcome and demonstrated a trend toward poor outcome prediction for age 65 years or older (P=.050). In the per-lesion analysis, only extravasation identified on CTA (active and contained extravasation) was associated with hematoma expansion and evacuation.

Conclusions: Contrast extravasation within intracranial hematomas predicts poor in-hospital outcome in the setting of acute traumatic intracranial injuries.

MeSH terms

  • Acute Disease
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Disease Progression
  • Extravasation of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Materials / diagnostic imaging*
  • Extravasation of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Materials / mortality
  • Female
  • Glasgow Coma Scale
  • Hematoma, Epidural, Cranial / diagnostic imaging*
  • Hematoma, Epidural, Cranial / mortality
  • Hematoma, Subdural, Acute / diagnostic imaging*
  • Hematoma, Subdural, Acute / mortality
  • Hospital Mortality
  • Humans
  • Intracranial Hemorrhage, Traumatic / diagnostic imaging*
  • Intracranial Hemorrhage, Traumatic / mortality
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Observer Variation
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prognosis
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods*
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed / statistics & numerical data