Pathophysiology of new bone formation and ankylosis in spondyloarthritis

Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2012 Aug;38(3):555-67. doi: 10.1016/j.rdc.2012.08.003. Epub 2012 Sep 7.


The outcome of patients suffering from spondyloarthritis is determined by chronic inflammation and new bone formation leading to ankylosis. The latter process manifests by new cartilage and bone formation leading to joint or spine fusion. This article discusses the main mechanisms of new bone formation in spondyloarthritis. It reviews the key molecules and concepts of new bone formation and ankylosis in animal models of disease and translates these findings to human disease. In addition, proposed biomarkers of new bone formation are evaluated and the translational current and future challenges are discussed with regards to new bone formation in spondyloarthritis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Ankylosis / metabolism
  • Ankylosis / pathology*
  • Ankylosis / physiopathology*
  • Biomarkers / metabolism
  • Chronic Disease
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / metabolism
  • Osteogenesis / physiology*
  • Spine / pathology*
  • Spondylarthritis / metabolism
  • Spondylarthritis / pathology*
  • Spondylarthritis / physiopathology*
  • Spondylitis, Ankylosing / metabolism
  • Spondylitis, Ankylosing / pathology
  • Spondylitis, Ankylosing / physiopathology


  • Biomarkers